There is an increased risk of vitamin K deficiency in those who have from liver disease or damage (as occurs in alcoholics), in individuals with inflammatory bowel diseases, cystic fibrosis, or those who have had recent abdominal surgery. Other individuals that can have secondary vitamin K deficiency include patients taking anticoagulants, as well as bulimics or those on strict diet. There are several drugs which are associated with vitamin K deficiency; they include aspirin and barbiturates.
Symptoms of Vitamin K Deficiency
Symptoms of Vitamin K deficiency include bruising, bleeding of gums or nose, anemia, and heavy menstrual bleeding in women. In addition, heart disease and osteoporosis are strongly associated with lower than normal levels of vitamin K2, also known as, Menaquinone. It is important to note that menaquinone is not inhibited by salicylates as occurs with vitamin K1, so supplementing with menaquinone can alleviate chronic vitamin K deficiency caused by long term use of aspirin.